3D-MVP: 3D Multiview Pretraining for Robotic Manipulation

1NVIDIA 2University of Michigan 3New York University
Work done during NVIDIA Research internship


Recent works have shown that visual pretraining on egocentric datasets using masked autoencoders (MAE) can improve generalization for downstream robotics tasks. However, these approaches pretrain only on 2D images, while many robotics applications require 3D scene understanding. In this work, we propose 3D-MVP, a novel approach for 3D multi-view pretraining using masked autoencoders. We leverage Robotic View Transformer (RVT), which uses a multi-view transformer to understand the 3D scene and predict gripper pose actions. We split RVT's multi-view transformer into visual encoder and action decoder, and pretrain its visual encoder using masked autoencoding on large-scale 3D datasets such as Objaverse. We evaluate 3D-MVP on a suite of virtual robot manipulation tasks and demonstrate improved performance over baselines. We also show promising results on a real robot platform with minimal finetuning. Our results suggest that 3D-aware pretraining is a promising approach to improve sample efficiency and generalization of vision-based robotic manipulation policies. We will release code and pretrained models for 3D-MVP to facilitate future research.


Generalist outputs

Overview of 3D-MVP. (a) We first pretrain a Multiview 3D Transformer using masked autoencoder on multiview RGB-D images. (b) We then finetune the pretrained Multiview 3D Transformer on manipulation tasks. Since the MVT is pretrained, the learned manipulation policy generalizes better. For example, it is more robust to changes of texture, size and lighting.

Results on RLBench

Generalist outputs

We report the task completion success rate for 18 RLBench tasks, as well as the average success rate. 3D-MVP reaches the state-of-the-art performance on the benchmark. The pretraining is mainly helpful for tasks with medium difficulty.

Results on COLOSSEUM

Generalist outputs

We report the average task completion success rate for 12 environmental perturbations and no perturbation. Manipulation policies which do explicit 3D reasoning (RVT) works significantly better and 2D pretraining approaches (MVP and R3M). 3D-MVP is more robust than RVT on most perturbations. MO = manipulation object. RO = receiver object.